sailing terms

Bom, escrevi o post anterior para falar um pouco do meu interesse em Etimologia, para justamente emendar neste. Outro dia eu estava curioso com a origem dos termos náuticos, em inglês, startboard e port, que na nossa terminologia naval correspondem, respectivamente, a boreste e bombordo.

(aviso: post longo)

Nota aos incautos: O boreste, antigamente também chamado de estibordo, é o lado direito da nau, para alguém que, estando dentro da mesma, esteja voltado para a proa da embarcação, ou seja, “oiando pá frente”. O bombordo é, obviamente, o lado “esquerdo”. O fato de haverem termos diferenciados para as coisas deriva da necessidade de evitar ambigüidades na comunicação. Isso é extremamente importante se você estiver numa situação de perigo, em que vidas estão em jogo e o mar está “falando” tão alto quanto, ou mais, que você.

Prosseguindo, fiz uma “pesquisa” (nothing serious I hope, my dear) sobre os termos em inglês, e acabei olhando alguns outros termos também, e o resultado, que primeiramente coloquei num email para os meus amigos interessados por vela, copio aqui:

Eu desenterrei da minha biblioteca um “A-Z of Sailing Terms” da Oxford, que eu tinha comprado justamente para ver se eu aprendia os nomes das coisas *em inglês* […]. Algumas coisas interessantes:

port: the left-hand side of a vessel as viewed from aft. The name probably owes its derivation to the fact that the old-fashioned merchant ships had a loading, or lading, port on their left-hand side, and the later sailing warships also had their entry port on that side. Originally the left-hand side of the ship was known as the larboard side, but this was changed officially to port in 1844 to avoid any confusion with the similar sounding starboard, or right-hand.

Fiquei curioso e fui procurar a etimologia da palavra “porto”:
3 a: an opening in a vessel’s side (as for admitting light or loading cargo) b archaic : the cover for a porthole”
pòrto rum. prov. fr. cat. port. port; sp. puerto: = lat. PORTUS quasi PORITUS, specie di participio passato parallelo al gr. POREYTÓS che da passagio, che tiene a PÒROS passagio, e quindi congenere a porthmòs il traghetto, il varco, pòrthmion il valico, il porto, porthmeýs navalestro, dalla stessa base di PER-ÀÔ io trapasso, PEÍR-Ô io passo […]: propr. entrata, uscita, e cosí detto perché offre sicuro passagio o ingresso dal mare alla terra.
port (1) “harbor,” O.E. port “harbor, haven,” reinforced by O.Fr. port, both O.E. and O.Fr. from L. portus “port, harbor,” originally “entrance, passage,” from PIE *prtu “a going, a passage,” from base *per “to lead, pass over” (cf. Skt. parayati “carries over;” Gk. poros “journey, passage;” L. porta “gate,” portare “passage;” Avestan peretush “passage, ford, bridge;” Armenian hordan “go forward;” Welsh rhyd “ford;” O.C.S. pariti “fly;” O.E. faran “to go, journey,” O.N. fjörðr “inlet, estuary”). Meaning “left side of a ship” is attested from 1543, from notion of “the side facing the harbor” (when a ship is docked). It replaced larboard in common usage to avoid confusion with starboard (q.v.); officially so by Admiralty order of 1844 and U.S. Navy Department notice of 1846. Fig. sense “place of refuge” is attested from 1426; phrase any port in a storm first recorded 1749.

starboard: the right-hand side of a vessel as seen from aft. It is generally accepted to be a corruption of steer-board, the board or oar which projected into the sea from the starboard quarter of old vessels and by which they were steered before the invention of the hanging rudder. […] At night a vessel under way at sea indicates her starboard side by carrying a green light on that side, visible from right ahead to two points abaft the beam.

(para guardar port & starboard, eu imagino um barco da Europa em 1000 e guaraná com rolha, descendo a costa da Africa até o Hope Cape, port é bombordo, é onde está a terra, o porto; e starboard é boreste, onde só tem as estrelas (e os monstros do mar, etc, etc, etc), mas claro, cada um guarda do jeito que for mais fácil)

point: a division of  the circumference of the magnetic compass card, which is divided into thirty-two points, each 11° 15′.  The compass card shows four cardinal points (N, S, E, W) and four half cardinal points (NE, SE, SW, NW), the remaining twenty-four divisions being full points.

windward: the weather side, or that from which the wind blows. It is the opposite side to leeward.

(o famoso BARLAVENTO)

leeward: (pron. loo’ard), a term denoting a direction at the sea in relation to the wind, i.e., down wind as opposed to windward, up wind.

(o famoso SOTAVENTO)

Buoyage, IALA System of: up to 1976 there were more than 30 different buoyage systems worldwide, many having rules which contradicted each other. […] resulted in the International Association of Lighthouse Authorities (IALA) implementing two new systems […]. Region A, consisting of Europe, South Africa[1], Australasia, and some Asian countries, uses red to mark the port hand side of a channel, when entering with the flood tide, and green for the starboard side[2]. Region B, consisting of North, Central and South America, Japan, Korea and the Philippines, uses green to mark the port hand side, and red for the starboard.

[1] (aparentemente, tirando a África do Sul, o resto do continente não existe ou está proibido de ter bóias – nada consta) (sim, isso foi um ironia)

lee-oh: the order usually given in a yacht or small sailing craft when it is required to tack.

(também conhecido como “BORDO!!”, ou no Rio de Janeiro: “CAMBANDO!!!”)

Rule(s) of the Road: […] In broad sense, vessels keep to the right when at sea. If, for example, two ships are approaching each other head on, both must alter course to starboard (or to the right) so that they pass each other port side to port side.

[Powered vessels:] Where a vessel is on the starboard hand of another, and steering a course which may result in a collision, she has the right of the way and should maintain her course and speed, the other vessel giving way to her. Where a vessel in on the port hand of another, and her course, if she maintains it, may result in a collision, she is the giving way vessel and must alter course to avoid the other. […]

[Sailing vessels:] …when two sailing vessels approach each other with the wind on a different side, the vessel with the wind on the port side must give way to the other. When both have the wind on the same side, the vessel to windward keeps clear of the vessel to the leeward.

(“with the wind on the port side = with sails on the starboard side => quem tá com a vela a boreste tem de ceder a passagem)

When yachts are racing, however, they have additional rules which apply among themselves during a race, laid down by the International Sailing Federation (ISAF). […]

The sailing and steering rules lay down down that if a collision between two vessels appears possible, both vessels must take avoiding action even if such actions involves a departure from the Rule of the Road on the part of one of them. This requirement is perhaps best summed up by the little verse which most seamen learn during the early years of their career:

Here lies the body of Michael O’Day
Who died maintaining the right of way;
He was right, dead right, as he sailed along,
But he’s just as dead as if he’d been wrong

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5 respostas para sailing terms

  1. L. disse:

    Nossa… quase um tratado…

  2. Pingback: starboard « russoz

  3. L. disse:

    I know… I know…

  4. Russo disse:


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